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Ce este si cum se trateaza candidoza orala?

afectiuni dentare, candidoza orala, placa bacteriana | 19.07.2010

Candidoza orala este o infectie provocata de o ciuperca. Aceasta se dezvolta pe membranele mucoase ale cavitatii orale. Cea mai cunoscuta este Candida albicans, dar mai exista si Candida glarata sau Candida tropicalis.

Ciuperca responsabila de candidoza produce o substanta alba si cremoasa, gasita cel mai frecvent pe limba si pe partea de interior a obrajilor. Unele persoane prezinta leziuni care pot fi dureroase si pot sangera. Mucoasa infectata din cavitatea bucala poate fi inflamata si rosie. Uneori, infectia din cavitatea bucala se poate extinde si in gat.

Pentru multi dintre noi candidoza nu produce efecte majore. Apare in general la persoanele cu un sistem imunitar mai slab, iar daca nu este depistata si tratata la timp poate fi destul de severa. Persoanele care au diabet si nu il tin sub control, persoanele care iau steroizi (in special pe termen lung) prezinta un risc mare in dezvoltarea candidozei orale, avand simptome severe.

De asemenea, o alta sursa de aparitie a cadindidozei orale este administrarea de antibiotice pe termen lung. Unele medicamente, in special acelea care usuca gura, pot duce la dezvoltarea candidozei. Serviciul National de Sanatate din Marea Britanie afirma ca prezenta candidozei este mai frecventa intre pacientii cu tratament chimio-terapeutic sau radio-terapeutic la cap sau la gat.

Care sunt semenele candidozei orale?

Un simptom este ceva ceea ce pacientul simte sau spune despre o anumita afectiune, in timp ce un semn este ceea ce un doctor detecteaza. De exemplu, durerea poate sa fie un simptom in timp ce iritatia poate sa fie un semn.

Candidoza orala la adulti are o consistenta albicioasa sau colorata pe membranele mucoase ale cavitatii orale (partile umede din cavitatea bucala.). Acestea din urma pot aparea umflate sau usor inrosite. Poate exista o sensatie de arsura si de discomfort.Uneori substanta albicioasa se poate depune pe dinti, formand placa bacteriana, de aceea uneori are o culoare gri- galbuie.

Rareori, zona afectata devine putin rosie si umflata, fara nicio pata alba.
Persoanele care poarta punti dentare pot avea zone care sunt constant umflate si rosii sub gingii. Igiena orala saraca sau uitarea puntilor dentare in timpul somnului poate creste aparitia candidozeii.

Care sunt cauzele candidozei orale?

Cantitati mici de ciuperci  de candidoza exista in diverse parti ale corpului nostru, precum: sistemul digestic, piele si cavitatea bucala,  care nu dau batai de cap persoanelor sanatoase. Persoanele care urmeaza o schema precisa de medicamente, au un sistem imunitar mai slabit decat cel al unor persoane complet sanatoase, favorizand conditiile de dezvoltare a candidozei orale.

Candidoza orala poate aparea la persoanele care:
- poarta punti dentare, in special la cele care nu o mentin curata, nu se potriveste bine sau cei care nu o scot inainte de culcare.
- iau antibiotice. Acestea din urma pot distruge bacteria care previne aparitia candidei
- folosesc excesiv apa de gura
- folosesc excesiv steroizi
- au un sistem imunitar slabit
- au diabet

Cum se poate diagnostica candidoza orala?

De cele mai frecvente cazuri, medicul dentist poate diagnostica candidoza orala prin examinarea cavitatii orale a pacientului si prin discutarea despre simptome si daca este cazul prin preluarea de probe pentru analize.
Medicul curant va decide forma de tratament a candidozei orale in functie de cauzele acesteia.

Care este tratamentul pentru candidoza orala?

De cele mai multe ori, medicul va prescrie medicamente anti- candidoza, precum nistatin, amfotericina sau miconazol, sub forma de pastile sau geluri. Pacientului i se poate prescrie si o suspensie orala care poate fi folosita ca o apa de gura.
Pentru pacientii cu sistemul imunitar slabit se recomanda administrarea oralsa sau intravenoasa de substante anti- fungi.

Sursa: Medical News Today


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