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Evolutia stomatologiei

istoria stomatologiei, parintele stomatologiei, Pierre Fauchard
Dentist.ro | 21.07.2009



Stomatologia, sub o forma rudimentara a fost practicata inca din Epoca Antica. Urme ale practicarii acestei ramuri a medicinei dateaza din anul 7000 i. Cr, cand  popoarele de pe Valea Indului din Pakistan practicau o forma incipienta a stomatologiei, folosind pentru tratarea problemelor danturii un fel de burghiu pe post de instrument.


Cu toate acestea, Mesopotamia si Egiptul antic sunt considerate leaganul stomatologiei. Primul stomatolog cunoscut  venea  din Egipt si a fost identificat ca existand in jurul anului 3000 I Cr. sub numele de Hesi-Re. Mai mult, se considera ca egiptenii practicau interventii chirurgicale dentare inca din anul 2500 I Cr. , cu toate ca nu exista dovezi serioase care sa sustina aceste presupuneri.


Dovezi ale practicarii stomatologiei in Epoca Antica au fost gasite si in scrierile lui Hipocrate si Aristotel care fac referire la tratamente impotriva deteriorarii dintilor, impotriva gingivitei si a ceea ce mai tarziu au fost numite boli parodontale, extractia dintilor cu forcepsul sau stabilizarea cu fire a celor care se miscau sau a maxilarelor fracturate.Primele incercari de inlocuire a dintilor (implant dentar)  dateaza din jurul anului 600 i. Cr. in Phoenicia, Libanul de azi, unde dintii lipsa erau inlocuiti cu dinti de animale si fixati cu un snur.


In Evul Mediu stomatologia nu a fost o profesie in sine, procedurile stomatologice fiind adesea facute de calugari, cele mai educate persoane ale inceputului de Ev Mediu, iar mai apoi de catre bariberi sau medici generalisti. O serie de edicte papale le-au interzis calugarilor, in jurul anilor 1130-1160, sa mai faca vreun fel de interventie stomatologica, moment din care barbierii au preluat aceste atributii. Ei ii asistau adesea pe calugari, mai ales ca veneau in manastiri pentru a ingriji barbile calugarilor, dar si pentru ca printre ustensilele lor se gaseau o serie de instrumente ascutite, folositoare la procedurile stomatologice. Barbierii se limitau, in general, la extractia dintilor insa acestea provocau dureri si erau urmate in multe cazuri de infectii serioase.


Prima carte dedicata domeniului a aparut in 1530 si se numea “Artzney Buchein” in Germania si servea drept un ghid pentru barbieri si medicii care se ocupau de problemele cavitatii bucale, acoperind probleme practice asa cum ar fi igiena orala sau procedeul de extragere a dintilor.

Stomatologia ca stiinta moderna s-a dezvoltat intre 1650 si 1800. Parintele stomatologiei moderne, asa cum o stim noi astazi este considerat a fi  Pierre Fauchard. Printre descoperirile sale se numara folosrea protezelor dentare, insa titlul de parinte al stomatologiei modern si-l trage mai mult datorita faptului ca a fost primul care a descris intr-un mod inteligibil un sistem medical complex ce cuprindea aspecte de baza ale anatomiei si fiziologiei orale, tehnici operative si reconstructive.


Inainte de descoperirea anestezicelor, interventiile dentare erau chinuitoare pentru pacienti, iar substantele folosite pe vremuri pentru ameliorarea durerii, asa cum era opiumul, nu aveau prea mare efect. In 1772 chimistul Joseph Priestley a obtinut protoxidul de azot, ale carui efecte anestezice au fost sesizate la scurt timp, insa acesta nu a fost folosit pana in 1844. Acesta a fost inceputul tratamentului dentar fara durere.


Medicina dentara astazi este mult mai specializata. Cariile nu mai sunt de multa vreme o problema, implantul dentar si-a perfectionat tehnicile, iar accentul s-a mutat dinspre ameliorarea unor probleme de sanatate catre reducerea lor totala si intretinerea cosmetica a danturii. Nu putini sunt cei care apeleaza la tratamentele de albire dentara, ba mai mult tatuajele pe dinti si piercingul oral devin mai mult decat o moda.

Surse: New World Encyclopedia, American Dental Association

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