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Istoria ortodontiei

aparat dentar invizibil, diga, indreptarea dintilor, istoria ortodontiei, malocluzii, metode de corectare a danturii, parintele ortodontiei, parintele stomatologiei, radiografie dentara
Dentist.ro | 06.10.2009



Indreptarea dintilor, in speta prin extractia dentara care ajuta la alinierea corespunzatoare a danturii, era practicata inca din vremurile antice, desi ortodontia ca ramura a stomatologiei a aparut abia in anii 1880.

Conform Asociatiei Americane a Ortodontilor (AAO), arheologii au descoperit cadavre mumificate ale oamenilor din antichitate ce aveau benzi din metal neprelucrat in jurul dintilor, iar etruscii erau ingropati purtand inca dispozitivele folosite in timpul vietii pentru a impiedica degradarea danturii si schimbarea pozitiei dintilor. Totodata, descoperirile facute de un cercetator intr-un mormant roman din Egipt arata cativa dinti legati cu o sarma din aur - prima atestare documentara a unei legaturi.  

Totusi, in ceea ce priveste aparitia si evolutia ortodontiei, marile descoperiri au venit mai tarziu, in jurul anilor 1800, meritul apartinand mai multor oameni care si-au pus amprenta pe progresul medicinei dentare.

In primul rand, trebuie mentionat "parintele stomatologiei," Pierre Fauchard (photo), care in lucrarea sa din 1728 - "Chirurgul Dentist" - dedica un intreg capitol metodelor de indreptare a danturii. Fauchard folosea pentru indreptarea dintilor un dispozitiv numit "bandeau", o bucata de metal pretios in forma de potcoava ce avea rolul de a extinde arcada maxilarului.

Cativa ani mai tarziu, in 1757, dentistul francez Bourdet publica la randul sau o carte, "Arta dentistului", din care un capitol era rezervat modalitatilor de aliniere corecta a dintilor si totodata dispozitivelor folosite in acest scop. Bourdet, dentistul regelui Frantei, a perfectionat "bandeau"-ul lui Fauchard, fiind si primul care a recomandat extractia premolarilor pentru a corecta "aglomerarea" dintilor si care a demonstrat stiintific cresterea maxilarului.

Chirurgul scotian John Hunter a scris, printre alte lucrari, "Istoria naturala a dintilor" (1771) si "Tratat practic asupra bolilor dintilor," descriind in detaliu anatomia dintelui, respectiv patologia dentara. Tot el a fost cel care a inventat termenii "cuspid," "bicuspid," "incisiv" si "molar."

In 1819, Delabarre a introdus in practicile de indreptare a dintilor crosetul de sarma, iar in 1841, Joachim Lafoulon a inventat termenul de "ortodontie."

Istoricii considera ca titlul de "parinte al ortodontiei" trebuie oferit atat lui Norman W. Kingsley, dentist, sculptor, scriitor si artist, autorul lucrarii "Tratat asupra anomaliilor maxilarului" (1880), cat si lui J. N. Farrar, autorul lucrarii in doua volume "Tratat asupra iregularitatilor dentare si a modalitatilor de corectare a danturii." Acestuia din urma ii datoram inventarea aparatelor dentare, el fiind totodata si primul care a sugerat folosirea presiunii asupra dintilor la intervale regulate pentru a-i indrepta.

O alta figura marcanta in evolutia ortodontiei este Edward H. Angle (1855-1930), care a dezvoltat primul sistem de clasificare a malocluziilor, sistem care se foloseste si astazi. Sistemul sau le oferea dentistilor o metoda simpla de a descrie cat de strambi sunt dintii, in ce directie sunt indreptati acestia si cum sunt ei aliniati in cavitatea orala. Tot Angle este cel care, in 1901, a pus bazele primei scoli de ortodontie si a organizat Societatea Americana de Ortodontie, care a devenit Asociatia Americana a Ortodontilor in anii 1930.

La inceputul anilor 1900, ortodontii foloseau aur, platina, otel, argint, cauciuc (uneori si lemn, fildes, zinc, cupru si alama) pentru a confectiona ligaturile, carligele si buclele folosite pentru indreptarea danturii. Cel mai des utilizat era aurul (de la 14 pana la 18 carate), datorita maleabilitatii sale. Din aur erau confectionate sarme, ligaturi, cleme, in vreme ce din foile de aliaj iridiu-platina erau fabricate aparatele dentare ce se fixau pe arcada maxilarului. Dispozitive din aur pentru indreptarea danturii se infasurau pe fiecare dinte in parte.

In anul 1929 a fost infiintata prima comisie de specialitate, Comisia Americana a Ortodontilor, iar la sfarsitul anilor 1930, a fost inventata periuta de dinti cu peri din nylon ('38) si tot in anii '40 otelul inoxidabil a inceput sa fie utilizat pe scara larga. Totusi, folosirea acestui aliaj pentru aparatele dentare a fost controversata, fiind pe deplin acceptata in anii 1960.

Inainte sa ajungem la inventatorul aparatului Invisalign-aparatul dentar "invizibil"-trebuie sa-i mai mentionam in aceasta incursiune in istoria ortodontiei si pe doctorul new-yorkez S.C. Barnum, care a inventat diga (folia extensibila din cauciuc ce se utilizeaza pentru izolarea dintilor in momentul unei lucrari dentare), pe Eugene Solomon Talbot's (1847-1924), primul care a folosit radiografiile in ortodontie si pe Calvin S. Case, prima persoana care a utilizat cauciucul elastic pentru aparatele dentare.

Cat despre aparatul dentar "invizibil," inventatorul acestuia este Zia Chishti, care impreuna cu partenerul sau de afaceri, Kelsey Wirth, a pus bazele firmei Align Technology in 1997, firma care produce si comercializeaza aparatele Invisalign. Acestea au fost comercializate pentru prima oara in mai 2000.

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