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Povestea stomatologiei in imagini

anestezie, istoria pastei de dinti, istoria periutei de dinti, pasta de dinti fara fluor, periuta de dinti, pierderea dintilor, prevenirea aparitiei cariilor, proteze dentare, stomatologie generala, tratarea cariilor
Dentist.ro | 03.09.2009



Ca orice poveste, si a stomatologiei incepe cu „a fost odata ca niciodata”…in anul 7000 i.e.n, un grup de mestesugari din Valea Indului a caror ocupatie era sa faca siraguri de margele.

Si care au gasit o noua intrebuintare pentru vrila cu coarda pe care o foloseau in meseria lor, intrebuintare care ii transforma astfel in cei mai indepartati stramosi a ceea ce numim noi astazi „dentisti.”
Vrila era folosita pentru a vindeca problemele danturii, in cadrul unor proceduri evident incredibil de dureroase, ceea ce a dus la aparitia stramosului asistentului medical al dentistului, pentru ca era nevoie de minim inca o persoana pentru a impiedica pacientul sa se zbata pe durata „tratamentului.”












 

Totusi, intrebarea pe care si-o puneau toti oamenii care erau nevoiti sa suporte dureri ingrozitoare pentru a-si pastra dintii era ce anume facea ca dantura sa se imbolnaveasca.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 Raspunsul nu l-au gasit mestesugarii indieni si pakistanezi din anul 7000 i.e.n, ci sumerienii, doua mii de ani mai tarziu. Atunci a aparut pentru prima oara mitul viermelui dentar, care explica aparitia cariilor. Logica din spatele acestei explicatii rezida in faptul ca o carie dentara avea un aspect asemanator gaurilor pe care viermii le faceau in lemn.

Mitul viermelui dentar a fost preluat si de filosofi si poeti ai Greciei Antice, regasindu-se totodata si in scrieri apartinand culturilor chineza, japoneza, egipteana si indiana. Si a rezistat multa vreme, razbatand de-a lungul istoriei pana in anii 1300, cand chirurgul francez Guy de Chauliac a promovat si el acest mit ca fiind cauza aparitiei cariilor.

Vierme de carie

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 Dar sa ne intoarcem din nou in timp, nu chiar pana in anul 5000 i.e.n, ci in 700 i.e.n, cand etruscii au folosit pentru prima oara puntile dentare, in varianta lor primitiva. Insa nu au fost si singurii.
Egiptenii se pot lauda cu faptul ca au inventat cosmetica dentara, atunci cand au folosit fire din aur pentru a lega dintii si a crea o punte dentara.
Punte dentara cu fire de aur









 

Acestea erau purtate de catre femei, care astfel faceau dovada statutului lor social.
Cum era de asteptat, in vremurile de mult uitate lucrurile evoluau lent, progresele erau putine dar extrem de importante si se inregistrau la distante mari de timp.
Asa ca pana in secolul al XVI-lea, meseria propriu-zisa de dentist nu a existat, atributiile care astazi le revin stomatologilor fiind pana in acea perioada apanajul barbierilor si al medicilor generalisti.
Si tot pana atunci, procedura cel mai des efectuata in mult-spus domeniul stomatologiei era extractia dentara, care era folosita pentru a inlatura durerea si a stopa degradarea danturii. Insa chiar si asa, progrese au fost, numai ca doar in ceea ce priveste ustensilele folosite. Astfel, de-a lungul a 4 secole, Dental Pelican, un instrument inventat de sus-mentionatul chirurg Guy de Chauliac, a suferit numeroase transformari pana sa lase loc cheii dentare, care la randul ei a fost perfectionata de-a lungul anilor.
























































































Cheie dentara:


















































































































Astazi, nu mai stie nimeni nici de pelican si nici de cheie, care s-au „metamorfozat” in secolul al XX-lea in forceps.

























































Pana acum, imaginile v-au vorbit despre mituri si instrumente, insa nu v-au spus nimic despre oameni. Despre indivizi, de fapt. Indivizi care si-au lasat amprenta asupra acestei istorii a stomatologiei si carora le datoram, fiecaruia intr-o oarecare masura, ceea ce numim noi azi medicina dentara.

Cronologic vorbind, prima figura marcanta a stomatologiei este chirurgul francez Pierre Fauchard, numit si „parintele medicinei dentare moderne,” autorul primului tratat de stomatologie, „Chirurgul dentist-tratat asupra dintilor.” (1723).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Apoi, trebuie sa-i multumim lui John Greenwood care, impreuna cu unul din dentistii lui George Washington, a construit in 1790 primul motor dentar, folosind drept model roata de tors. 




























 

 

 Tot in 1790 a fost inventat si primul scaun stomatologic, dintr-un scaun Windsor din lemn caruia i s-a adaugat o tetiera.




































 

 

Unsprezece ani mai tarziu, George F. Green a inventat primul motor dentar electric.

In 1840, Chapin Harris si Horace Hayden au pus bazele primei scoli dedicate exclusiv stomatologiei, Colegiul de Chirurgie Dentara din Baltimore, care aproape un secol mai tarziu-in 1923- a fost incorporat in Scoala de Medicina Dentara a Universitatii din Maryland, care exista si astazi.

La inceputul acestei istorii in imagini, pozele au vorbit de la sine si instrumentele primitive pe care le infatisau cu siguranta v-au ajutat sa va imaginati chinurile prin care treceau cei care aveau nevoie de ajutorul lor in a-si trata problemele danturii.

Ei bine, durerea a incetat sa mai fie insuportabila odata cu anul 1844, cand un dentist din Connecticut pe nume Horace Wells a descoperit ca protoxidul de azot poate fi folosit ca anestezic. Totusi, nu el a ramas in istorie ca fiind cel care a facut aceasta descoperire, fiindca demonstratia sa publica a efectelor anestezice ale protoxidului de azot a fost un esec, pacientul tipand de durere in timpul operatiei pe care dentistul a efectuat-o.

Meritul ii revine astfel unuia dintre studentii sai, William Morton, a carui demonstratie publica a fost una incununata de succes.
Am ajuns asadar cu povestea aproape de zilele noastre, in secolul al XX-lea, unul plin de progrese si inovatii majore in ceea ce priveste domeniul medicinei dentare.

In zorii acestui veac, in 1903, Charles Land a construit o coroana dentara din portelan iar 2 ani mai tarziu, chimistul german Alfred Einhord a descoperit Novocaina.




























 

 

Dupa 3 decenii, in 1938, a aparut pe piata prima periuta de dinti cu perii din nailon sintetic, pentru ca la miez de secol, sa inceapa sa fie comercializate primele paste de dinti cu fluor.

In 1957, John Borden a inventat freza electrica de mare viteza.
























 

In anii 60 apar laserele dentare si primele periute de dinti electrice, iar in anii 90 ia avant cosmetica dentara cu tot ce presupune ea: implanturi dentare, tratamente de albire a dintilor, aplicarea de bijuterii dentare si tatuajele dentare.












 

 Dupa cum se observa in acest istoric, domeniul stomatologic a cunoscut un magnific progres in ultimii 100 de ani.
Unde credeti ca va ajunge stomatologia in urmatorii 50 de ani?

Sursa foto: Dentalassistant.net

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