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Totul despre cancerul oral

afectiuni dentare, cancer oral, control stomatologic, medic dentist, sanatatea orala
Dentist.ro | 13.11.2009



Cancerul inglobeaza peste 200 de boli care afecteaza anumite organe si zone ale corpului uman. Spus in cuvinte mai simple, putem defini cancerul ca o afectiune a celulelor.

Singurul punct comun al diferitelor tipuri de cancer este acela ca toate incep la fel. Informatia genetica dintr-o celula se modifica, celula se divide necontrolat si impreuna cu altele asemeni ei afecteaza tesuturile sau organele din jur.


Ce este cancerul oral?


Cancerul oral este a opta tumoare maligna ca frecventa. Desi este de doua ori mai intalnita la barbati decat la femei, cazurile intalnite azi la femei s-au intensificat din cauza nerespectarii anumitor reguli care ne ajuta sa evitam aparitia cancerului oral. Riscul cel mai crescut de aparitie a acestei boli il prezinta pacientii trecuti de 40 de ani.   

Aceasta forma de cancer apare in interiorul gurii, la nivelul buzelor (inferioara in general), pe partea superioara a faringelui, la nivelul amigdalelor si a glandelor salivare.


Care sunt cauzele imbolnavirii?


Cele mai frecvente cauze ale imbolnavirii cu cancer oral sunt fumatul si alcoolul. Acestia sunt doi factori de risc deloc de neglijat. Cu cat se consuma mai multe produse pe baza de tutun si cu cat se bea mai mult alcool, cu atat creste riscul de imbolnavire.

Locatia in care se va dezvolta cancerul este determinata si de ce consumam. Cancerul obrajilor si al gingiilor sunt asociate cu tutunul care produce putin fum. Alcoolul cauzeaza aparitia cancerului la buza, limba si planseu bucal.

Printre alte cauze ale aparitiei cancerului mentionate de stomatologi si oncologi putem sa mai mentionam expunerea prelungita la soare, iritatiile din cavitatea bucala, alimentatia bogata in chimicale si igiena bucala necorespunzatoare.


Ce simptome are?


Semnele timpurii ale cancerului oral pot fi depistate de catre medicul dentist in maxim 5 minute. Cea mai simpla si rapida metoda este prin testul de screening Vizilite Plus care foloseste o lumina fluorescenta si o solutie de albastru de toluidina. Acestea evidentiaza zonele cu potential canceros. Costul unui astfel de test este de 100-120 de lei si poate fi procurat direct de la importator.

Cele mai frecvente semne sunt:

-    gustul acru in gura
-    o plaga nevindecabila
-    durere in gura persistenta
-    ingrosare sau umflare a limbii
-    pete rosii sau albe la nivelul cavitatii bucale
-    respiratie urat mirositoare persistenta
-    dificultati la muscat si inghitit
-    probleme in miscarea limbii
-    caderea dintilor
-    modificarea vocii


Cum se trateaza?


Dupa ce se face diagnosticul, se elaboreaza un plan de tratament individual. Se intampla de foarte multe ori sa fie nevoie de o interventie chirurgicala, urmata de radioterapie si chimioterapie.

Exista si posibilitatea ca el sa fie depistat din timp atunci cand dentistul observa ceva suspect in cavitatea bucala a pacientului. El indeparteaza tesutul lezat si face o biopsie. Cel mai frecvent insa, medicul dentist isi trimite pacientul cu astfel de probleme la specialistul oncolog.

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